Overview of the included costs of the life cycle cost calculation.
|Life cycle phases||Included costs|
|Whole-life cycle costs||1. Political decision and urban design phase||Non-construction cost (cost of land, fees and enabling costs, externalities)|
|Life-cycle cost||Initial investment||2. Building design phase||Building design costs|
|3. Construction phase||Construction and building site management costs|
|–||4. Operation phase||Energy and ordinary maintenance costs|
|5. Renovation phase||Repair and renovation costs|
|6. Recycling, dismantling and reuse phase||Residual value of the elements|
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