Table 1

Overview of the included costs of the life cycle cost calculation.

      Life cycle phases Included costs
Whole-life cycle costs     1. Political decision and urban design phase Non-construction cost (cost of land, fees and enabling costs, externalities)
  Life-cycle cost Initial investment 2. Building design phase Building design costs
      3. Construction phase Construction and building site management costs
    4. Operation phase Energy and ordinary maintenance costs
      5. Renovation phase Repair and renovation costs
      6. Recycling, dismantling and reuse phase Residual value of the elements

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