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Table 2

Flow rate error for the three grid sizes.

Computational grid size Q_flow rate (m3/s) ε = (f2 − f1)/f1 × 100%
Coarse: 122 709 −0.5394* 5.4%
Middle: 237 703 −0.5115*
Fine: 576 620 −0.5208* 1.8%

The negative sign indicates that the flow exits the stadium interior from the ventilation opening.

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